Multidrug Resistance (MDR): Global catastrophic risk

Multidrug Resistance (MDR): Global catastrophic risk

Bacteria are unicellular organisms. Among them, only one percent can cause a variety of infection that can be mild to fulminating in the severity. The bacteria can be classified into pathogenic, opportunistic and non-pathogenic bacteria. The treatment of bacterial infection by antibiotics was the hallmark in the field of medicine in the twentieth century. Due to the advent of first antibiotic Penicillin in 1928, the treatment of infectious diseases was no longer a big trouble. It was then chased by an immense commercial production of a number of antibiotics. About approximately 100, 00 tons of antibiotics are manufactured throughout the world annually. The microbes had shown antibiotic resistance soon after the introduction of first antibiotics in the clinics. After that, further induction of new antibiotics has been escorted with the gradual rise of antibiotic resistant microbes and the diversification in the resistance mechanisms employed by bacteria to outdo the fatal effect of these antibiotics. Currently, as a minimum single resistance mechanism has been depicted against every group of commonly used antibiotics. Many of these multidrug resistant (MDR) microbes can cause life-threatening infections equally in the hospital and the community. Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus is among the pathogens that can cause mild to life-threatening infections. The virulence potential of S. aureus had exhibited an extraordinary variety of resistance mechanisms against a number of antibiotics. The MRSA strains (methicillin-resistant S. aureus) that are resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics were initially causing mainly hospital acquired infections for many years but at present progressively they are causing community infections. These infections are more severe and lethal.

Furthermore, the non-judicial use of antibiotics results in the development of Drug resistance in bacteria. Now, not only most of the pathogenic microbes but also the non-pathogenic microbes have developed resistance to single or number of chemotherapeutic agents i.e., Multidrug resistant (MDR). MDR is really a very serious threat in the treatment of bacterial, fungal and cancer diseases. It can be understood by the fact that about two million patients in the United States develop nosocomial infections from MDR Pathogens and annually more than 35 billion U.S dollar are spent on the treatment of MDR infections only.

Therefore, there is an urgent need for discovering new and novel potent antibiotics for treatment of MDR infections. Alongside, measures should be taken to avoid dissemination of MDR through the prohibition of the indiscriminate use of antibiotics.